Jumat, 08 Juli 2016

Nutrigenomics and Health

source: shcs-dev.ucdavis.edu

Nutrigenomics represents the dynamic interface between nutrition and
genomic-regulated processes [18, 19]. A set of fundamental principles exist
which underpins the nutrigenomics concept. The first is that the genotype can
influence the ability of a food component to influence cellular processes associated
with health and/or disease. Second, numerous dietary components are
capable of influencing, singly or in combination, the gene expression patterns
involved in multiple cellular processes. Third, the observed cellular response is
dependent on the amount and duration of exposure to a specific or blend of
food components. Finally, the ability of a bioactive food component to influence
cellular processes will depend, in some cases, on the stage of the life cycle.
Collectively, nutrigenomics embodies the interrelationships occurring among
variation in DNA base sequences, epigenetics events and transcriptomics. Such
interactions may influence not only the magnitude, but sometimes the direction,
of the response to specific bioactive food components [6, 19–22]. Inappropriate
dietary habits may tip the scale from a healthy condition to a state of disease
progression. Thus, appropriate dietary intake of food components is fundamental
to regulating normal physiological processes, as well as the squelching of
potential pathologic conditions. The scientific literature already provides evidence
that the response to food components can vary from tissue to tissue, as
well as a function of the time and duration of intervention [23–25]. Undeniably,
the capturing of this genomic-diet information is critical to the identification of those individuals who will benefit from intervention strategies and those who
might be placed at risk because of a dietary change. The incorporation of this
information will allow for nutritional preemption strategies which utilize foods
or their components to enhance normal processes and/or to retard or reverse
cellular events that lead to aberrant conditions including those associated with
chronic disease.
Figure: The influence of nutrigenetics, epigenetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and
metabolomics on the phenotypic response to food components.

The 30,000 genes in the human genome are responsible for more than
100,000 functionally distinct proteins, and likely 3–5 times that number of
small-molecular-weight cellular constituents (such as metabolic intermediates,
hormones and other signaling molecules, and secondary metabolites) which
collectively can enhance or suppress a number of physiological processes.
Understanding how foods and their components influence each step in the cascade
of events leading to a phenotype (fig. 3) is a daunting task, but holds great
promise in helping improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of diseases.

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